Virtues & Vices (Aristotle)

Aristotle virtues vices greek audio book



While the academics are pulling their hair, arguing about the authenticity of “Virtues & Vices”, there is a general agreement that this work, if not of the master himself, comes from the Aristotelian “school”. It seems more like a definitions’ manual of virtues and vices, than something else and as such can it be put to use. Plato’s division of the Soul (in Reason, Passions and Appetites) gives the structure within which the virtues and vices are placed.
The audiobook (± 18′ long) contains the whole text, the sample only the first 3 minutes of the beginning.
It is recorded in reconstructed ancient Greek.
Click on the on the left of the original Greek text for listening. Lower on this page you can find download links, for the .ogg & mp3 formats, in case your browser cannot reproduce the sound through the player on the left…


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περὶ Ἀρετῶν καὶ Κακιῶν

παινετὰ μέν ἐστι τὰ καλά, ψεκτὰ δὲ τὰ αἰσχρά. Καὶ τῶν μὲν καλῶν ἡγοῦνται αἱ ἀρεταί, τῶν δ᾽ αἰσχρῶν αἱ κακίαι.
Ἐπαινετὰ δ᾽ ἐστὶ καὶ τὰ αἴτια τῶν ἀρετῶν καὶ τὰ παρεπόμενα ταῖς ἀρεταῖς καὶ τὰ γινόμενα ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν καὶ τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν, ψεκτὰ δὲ τὰ ἐναντία.
• Τριμεροῦς δὲ τῆς ψυχῆς λαμβανομένης, κατὰ Πλάτωνα, τοῦ μὲν λογιστικοῦ ἀρετή ἐστιν ἡ φρόνησις, τοῦ δὲ θυμοειδοῦς ἥ τε πρᾳότης καὶ ἡ ἀνδρεία, τοῦ δὲ ἐπιθυμητικοῦ ἥ τε σωφροσύνη καὶ ἡ ἐγκράτεια, ὅλης δὲ τῆς ψυχῆς ἥ τε δικαιοσύνη καὶ ἡ ἐλευθεριότης καὶ ἡ μεγαλοψυχία.
Κακία δ᾽ ἐστὶ τοῦ μὲν λογιστικοῦ ἡ ἀφροσύνη, τοῦ δὲ θυμοειδοῦς ἥ τε ὀργιλότης καὶ ἡ δειλία, τοῦ δὲ ἐπιθυμητικοῦ ἥ τε ἀκολασία καὶ ἡ ἀκράτεια, ὅλης δὲ τῆς ψυχῆς ἥ τε ἀδικία καὶ ἀνελευθεριότης καὶ μικροψυχία.
• Ἔστι δὲ φρόνησις μὲν ἀρετὴ τοῦ λογιστικοῦ, παρασκευαστικὴ τῶν πρὸς εὐδαιμονίαν συντεινόντων.
• Πρᾳότης δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἀρετὴ τοῦ θυμοειδοῦς, καθ᾽ ἣν ὑπὸ ὀργῆς γίνονται δυσκίνητοι.
• Ἀνδρεία δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἀρετὴ τοῦ θυμοειδοῦς, καθ᾽ ἣν δυσέκπληκτοί εἰσιν ὑπὸ φόβων τῶν περὶ θάνατον.
• Σωφροσύνη δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἀρετὴ τοῦ ἐπιθυμητικοῦ, καθ᾽ ἣν ἀνόρεκτοι γίνονται περὶ τὰς ἀπολαύσεις τῶν φαύλων ἡδονῶν.
• Ἐγκράτεια δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἀρετὴ τοῦ ἐπιθυμητικοῦ, καθ᾽ ἣν κατέχουσι τῷ λογισμῷ τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν ὁρμῶσαν ἐπὶ τὰς φαύλας ἡδονάς.
• Δικαιοσύνη δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἀρετὴ ψυχῆς διανεμητικὴ τοῦ κατ᾽ ἀξίαν.
• Ἐλευθεριότης δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἀρετὴ ψυχῆς εὐδάπανος εἰς τὰ καλά.
• Μεγαλοψυχία δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἀρετὴ ψυχῆς, καθ᾽ ἣν δύναται φέρειν εὐτυχίαν καὶ ἀτυχίαν καὶ τιμὴν καὶ ἀτιμίαν.
• Ἀφροσύνη δ᾽ ἐστὶ  κακία τοῦ λογιστικοῦ, αἰτία τοῦ ζῆν κακῶς.
• Ὀργιλότης δ᾽ ἐστὶ κακία τοῦ θυμοειδοῦς, καθ᾽ ἣν εὐκίνητοι γίνονται πρὸς ὀργήν.

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