On the Soul (Aristotle)

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Soul Aristotle


On the Soul by Aristotle

About the work “On the Soul”

The Aristotelian treatise “On the Soul”, Greek: «Περὶ Ψυχῆς», also known as “de Anima”, consists of three books. Ancient scholiasts and scholars usually classified it as a kind of introductory treatise within the total framework of Aristotle’s writings. The reason for this were that Aristotle ventured studying the soul more as a physiologist than a metaphysicist, since the soul for him is “the inseparable principle and essence of a body, produced by nature and having organs, that allow it to live”. Such living beings are plants, animals and humans. He thus discerns: 1) the vegetative or nutritional soul, 2) the animal or sensible soul and 3) the mental or human soul, which last one is at the same time nutritional and sensible. For this reason the human soul is central to this inquiry of Aristotle’s.

Aristotle

Though Aristotle doesn’t need an introduction, in case you’d like to refresh your knowledge about his life and work, you can read enough in published books, or online at websites like:
Encyclopedia Britannica, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Wikipedia, Biography.com, or elsewhere.

About the audiobook

The recording (IMHO world premiere in any language) contains the complete unabridged Ancient Greek text of the treatise, divided as follows: book-1 in 4 chapters, book-2 in 12 chapters and book-3 in 13 chapters. After purchase you will be able to download the zip file, containing both mp3 and m4b formats. The m4b format is bookmarkable and divided in the chapters themselves for your convenience when listening or following the original text.


A short sample chapter

You can listen to chapter 8 of the 3rd book, as an audio sample of the present audiobook. Please, click on the play-button bellow and, if you wish, follow the Ancient Greek text lower on the page.
Thank you!

 


ΠΕΡΙ ΨΥΧΗΣ – book 3, chapter 08

Νῦν δέ, περὶ ψυχῆς τὰ λεχθέντα συγκεφαλαιώσαντες, εἴπωμεν πάλιν ὅτι ἡ ψυχὴ τὰ ὄντα πώς ἐστι πάντα· ἢ γὰρ αἰσθητὰ τὰ ὄντα ἢ νοητά, ἔστι δ’ ἡ ἐπιστήμη μὲν τὰ ἐπιστητά πως, ἡ δ’ αἴσθησις τὰ αἰσθητά· πῶς δὲ τοῦτο, δεῖ ζητεῖν.

τέμνεται οὖν ἡ ἐπιστήμη καὶ ἡ αἴσθησις εἰς τὰ πράγματα, ἡ μὲν δυνάμει εἰς τὰ δυνάμει, ἡ δ’ ἐντελεχείᾳ εἰς τὰ ἐντελεχείᾳ· τῆς δὲ ψυχῆς τὸ αἰσθητικὸν καὶ τὸ ἐπιστημονικὸν δυνάμει ταὐτά ἐστι, τὸ μὲν τὸ ἐπιστητὸν τὸ δὲ τὸ αἰσθητόν. ἀνάγκη δ’ ἢ αὐτὰ ἢ τὰ εἴδη εἶναι. αὐτὰ μὲν δὴ οὔ· οὐ γὰρ ὁ λίθος ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ, ἀλλὰ τὸ εἶδος· ὥστε ἡ ψυχὴ ὥσπερ ἡ χείρ ἐστιν· καὶ γὰρ ἡ χεὶρ ὄργανόν ἐστιν ὀργάνων, καὶ ὁ νοῦς εἶδος εἰδῶν καὶ ἡ αἴσθησις εἶδος αἰσθητῶν.

ἐπεὶ δὲ οὐδὲ πρᾶγμα οὐθὲν ἔστι παρὰ τὰ μεγέθη, ὡς δοκεῖ, τὰ αἰσθητὰ κεχωρισμένον, ἐν τοῖς εἴδεσι τοῖς αἰσθητοῖς τὰ νοητά ἐστι, τά τε ἐν ἀφαιρέσει λεγόμενα καὶ ὅσα τῶν αἰσθητῶν ἕξεις καὶ πάθη. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο οὔτε μὴ αἰσθανόμενος μηθὲν οὐθὲν ἂν μάθοι οὐδὲ ξυνείη, ὅταν τε θεωρῇ, ἀνάγκη ἅμα φάντασμά τι θεωρεῖν· τὰ γὰρ φαντάσματα ὥσπερ αἰσθήματά ἐστιν, πλὴν ἄνευ ὕλης. ἔστι δ’ ἡ φαντασία ἕτερον φάσεως καὶ ἀποφάσεως· συμπλοκὴ γὰρ νοημάτων ἐστὶ τὸ ἀληθὲς ἢ ψεῦδος. τὰ δὲ πρῶτα νοήματα τί διοίσει τοῦ μὴ φαντάσματα εἶναι; ἢ οὐδὲ τἆλλα φαντάσματα, ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἄνευ φαντασμάτων.



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